Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Eastern State Penitentiary Field Visit Essays - Free Essays Alexandra Swim LEN 101 Eastern State Penitentiary Field Visit On this day of Saturday, November 16th, we know weve arrived at the right place at this medieval castle seems very out of place. Our tour guide meets us right outside of the front gate and proceeds to tell us that when Eastern State Penitentiary was opened two miles outside downtown Philadelphia in 1829, it was built as a gothic fortress to deter crime. Architect John Haviland said of the building, it should strike fear into the hearts of those who thought of committing a crime. Before entering the prison, we learn the brief history of the beginning of Eastern State. In 1787, a group of powerful Philadelphians gathered with Ben Franklin. The members of The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons was formed, and spoke to see the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania build a revolutionary new prison designed to create genuine regret and penitence in a prisoners heart on farmland outside Philadelphia. Eastern abandoned corporal punishment and ill treatment, adopting a system of spiritual reflection and change while being punished. Inmates were hooded whenever outside of their cells to prevent any distraction, interaction, or knowledge of the prison. They were to focus only on thought of their behavior and the ugliness of their crimes. This made Eastern State Penitentiary the most famous prison in the world. The first stop we make as we walk into the prison is the front tower. This is where multiple guards were at all times to watch over the whole prison. From here, you can get a birds eye view of the whole 11-acre prison complex. The front tower housed the alarm bell and the only clock visible to prisoners when they were outside in their private exercise yards. Down from this main tower and to the left, we traveled up another set of tight stairs in the West Tower to a door under lock and key: the administration building office, also known as the Wardens office. Between 1872 and 1885, the Warden had his office relocated to the main prison building between cell blocks 1 and 9. However, because of security concerns with the prisoners, the office had to be relocated back to the West Tower in the administration office building in 1923, where it stayed until the Penitentiarys closing in 1970. Still untouched in the office lies the remains of many filing cabinets strewn around that once held t he files of each of Easterns prisoners. We have now finished our introduction to the penitentiary with the main gate, which means we are ready to move to the main prison building. As we leave the gate building, Havilands masterpiece is before us. Eastern was initially built to house 250 of the harshest criminals; the job was to create blocks where prisoners could be kept completely isolated from each other in surroundings not injurious to their health but secure from escape and easily accessible to constant inspection by guards. To carry out this revolutionary task in prison reform, Haviland chose to build Eastern State Penitentiary as a radial layout, with a central hub with seven wings converging on it and connecting to the center building by covered passageways. The center building served as an inspection hall for vantage point guards to view all corridors of the prison. The first three wings built were single story, each containing about forty cells each. Entry to these cells was not through the corridor, but through t he private exercise yard connected to each cell. The remaining four cell blocks were two stories in height. Access to the cells was through double doors opening into the corridors. Each cell contained a toilet, water tap, a bunk on chains, and equipment for the prisoners work activities. The only light came from an 8-inch window in the ceiling. Eastern State Penitentiary had become the tangible symbol for the emerging system of solitary confinement through Havilands design. The first stop we make in the main building of the penitentiary is the rotunda. This is the physical and symbolic center of the prison. Designed for maximum surveillance into all corridors, the idea was copied in hundreds of prisons throughout the 19th century, and provided a very powerful
Saturday, February 29, 2020
When society considers the word alienation, they refer to people who are excluded by society, or those who are psychologically separated from themselves. There are several uses for this term. But both the sociological process and the mental state seem to be particularly dominant. In 'revolver', 'housewife', 'way of coloring', Bazan, Tutai and Hurston combine alienated social and psychological aspects with fear, repression and identity, respectively. Modernism: Heston and How to feel my color Zora Neil Heston's work embodies the reaffirmation of alienated modernist themes and racial and social identity. She has a subjective sentence style, but it is not external, it comes from that person's inner heart and mind. Heston will discuss racial relations, discrimination, race, social identity themes. - ... If your family goes out in a conversation, she needs to pull it hard. This is contrary to the experience I grew in the 1990s. When I was a child, I tried not to talk to strangers and told me to teach the general teaching dangers of strangers. If you are not talking directly to your parents or grandparents, you were asked why you should not accept the kidnapping of children and why someone is riding. When society considers the word alienation, they refer to people who are excluded by society, or those who are psychologically separated from themselves. There are several uses for this term. But both the sociological process and the mental state seem to be particularly dominant. - The experience of African Americans with Langston Hughes of Zora Neale Hurston is an excellent writer of Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes, but the attitude towards personal experiences as African Americans varies. These differences arise from various reasons from gender to life, but even if you have different views on the experience of African-Americans, they share a common goal of achieving racial equality through art It is.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Advance Accounting - Essay Example ncome is generally identified as a construct that causes an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s money supply to increase for a specific period of time (Auger, Burke, Devinney, & Louviere, 2003). The means which help the organization in increasing cash reserves is called an asset whereas, the source that causes the money supply of the company to drain is known as expense or liability. The expense occurs when an organization has to pay money in order to keep its daily operations running and this particular head includes salaries of employees, utility bills and other office related short term costs. However, the liability is of two kinds. The first one is called short term liability that has to be paid within one year while the other one which is usually of a long term nature and has to be paid over the tenure of more than one year. The companies always attempt to keep its expenses and liabilities less than the value of income. The notion of income changed a great deal whereas, other business models emerged that included no tangible product but they started to sell services such as hotels, medical professionals and even psychologists. The revenues are generated against rendering services to the customer base in the industry (Badelt & Weiss, 1990). In the past times, services industry was not a common way of making a living but now it is considered the most lucrative one regarding its ability to help people in generating income. The professional lenders are also lending their money in order to obtain substantial level of return on the base amount. The capitalists are making money with the help of lending their financial resources to others and interest income is realized as a consequence. The traditional incomeÃ¢â¬â¢s definition is modified and now one does not have to do anything for anyone in order to make obscene amount of money (Greve & Salaff, 2003). The professional lenders have accumulated financia l power by either inheriting the wealth or they managed to make money by hard working in the
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Importance of managing the firms weighted average cost of capital (WACC) - Essay Example Managing WACC thus means keeping the WACC value lower than the company's after-tax returns, or in other words, reducing the cost of capital.This can be done by financing a major percentage of the purchase with the lowest cost of capital available, secured debts for instance, and the rest with personal equity held as cash, or by means of capital prioritisation, that is, using the cheapest source of capital first. A low WACC means that investors will be interested in the company in case additional capital needs to be raised for expansion or other purposes. Calculating WACC is often tricky because though the cost of debt is easy to track down, cost of equity can be an elusive factor. But it is worth the exercise, because knowing its WACC helps a company to try and restrict the WACC value for projects to levels far below those of its after-tax returns, thus adding to profitability. All firms need to take recourse to loans at some stage of their life cycle. But they need to carefully and critically evaluate their loan agreements, whether in the public or the private sector.
Friday, January 24, 2020
The Genius of Ralph Ellison Ã Ã Ã I am an invisible man. With these five words, Ralph Ellison ignited the literary world with a work that commanded the respect of scholars everywhere and opened the floodgates for dialogue about the role of African-Americans in American society, the blindness that drove the nation to prejudice, and racial pluralism as a forum for recognizing the interconnection between all members of society regardless of race. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me. . . . That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come in contact. A matter of the construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality (Ellison, 1). Roughly autobiographical in nature, Ellison's Invisible Man is also a chronology constructed to parallel the history of African-Americans, from slavery, Emancipation, subjugation, and a rising consciousness of injustice perpetrated against them. However, Ellison's literary finesse produced an opus that draws in every member of American society. Rather than alienating whites by portraying a man victimized by a racist system, Ellison appeals to the universal needs of humanity to be valued, recognized, and respected. Through his portrayal of an enigmatic, complex, invisible protagonist he makes the reader reflect upon the societal dynamics that marginalize people and create the unsettling climate that the protagonist's needs and feelings may be identical to those of the reader. Ellison's life has been called representative of that of African-Americans of his era. Born in 1914 to parents of farming and small business backgrounds, he grew up in O... ...s movement, to the current crossroads of affirmative action and other contemporary race issues. He transformed these issues from being matters of race to matters of humanity. Ã I am an invisible man. The pain of racism and diminished humanity rings through the work. Ellison's own life met with many of the same challenges, yet he made the story one not limited to the African American community. As the last sentence of the book asks, Who knows but that, on the lower frequencies, I speak for you? Ã Bibliography Bloom, Harold. Ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Invisible Man. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. 1999. Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House. 1952. Ellison, Ralph. Juneteenth. New York: Random House. 1999. McSweeny, Kerry. Invisible Man: Race and Identity. Boston: Twayne Publishers. 1988. Ã Ã
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
California has the largest prison population in the United States and some countries around the world. For over 40 years, the incarceration levels have risen. The prison rates have risen 700 percent since 1970, today it is estimated that one in 100 adults are incarcerated. Who pays the bill for this large increase, tax payers have and will continue until the Department of Justice and government have a solid plan to reduce the overwhelming criminal justice deficient. The taxpayers are not only paying to house the prisoners but to feed them and all their medical needs. One plan that was pass by the Supreme Court was to reduce the prison population, they gave California two years to do this (Henrichson, 2012). Revenue is big for state prisons; most states rely on taxpayers to foot the bill. Around the mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s is when prisons were financed by the pay as you go method and bonds there were $9.6 billion in construction costs. In the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the expenditures were up to $ 22 billion dollars, this was over half the debt it cost to finance prisons. The general obligation bond was another way to pay for prisons, but this was financed by tax revenues and back by government credit. Getting prisons built pressured the Governor at the time, Mario Cuomo, he tried to use the Urban Development Corporation (UDC), and this fund was for oversight for low-income housing. This was shot down at the state supreme court. The lease revenue bonds became a way to pay for prisons. An entity or agency was created to build the prisons, they this agency would lease it to the government. In turn the taxpayers would pay back the loan, it was done this way because it did not require the government to ask the voters (Ã¢â¬Å"Public BondsÃ¢â¬ , 2004). The Department of Justice (DOJ), just like most organizations has a contingency plan. The Antideficiency Act regulates what can and will not be paid for if the contingency plan is put into action. There are certain programs that willÃ always keep going; they are Diversion Control, Health Care fraud and abuse control, debt collection, asset forfeiture fund, and federal prison industries. According to Ã¢â¬Å"United States Department Of JusticeÃ¢â¬ (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"Also, the Bureau of PrisonsÃ¢â¬â¢ (BOP) Buildings and Facilities and Commissary accounts have multi-year authority and have adequate carryover funding to meet expenses during a lapse in appropriations Ã¢â¬ . In the event, the California prison system would need to activate their contingency plan the Bureau of Prison Buildings and Facilities and the Prison Industries and Commissary funds would carry over to meet any expenses. The employees, including medical staff are except from any finical constraints. (U.S. Department of Justice Contingency Plan). Public prisons became a drain on the budget since the mid 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, and only getting worse. With the cost of living going up so does the cost of medical and psychiatric car. Also, another big stressor is the overcrowding in public prisons, with more inmates there is a need for more officers on duty, this results in more overtimes and hiring more officers. A way to lessen this burden is privatized prisons. There are several investors in the public stock market. Privatized prisons have investors that fund them. Miller (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Private prisons can be defined in one of the following manners: a transfer of public facilities to a private organization; a contract to design and operate new prisons; and a contract to provide other services to public prisons such as transportation, medical care, food, and maintenance Ã¢â¬Å"(The Drain of Public Prison Systems and the Role of Privatization: An Analysis of State Correctional Systems). Private prisons do not have ties to the government , they are funded privately, however, and they may enter into a contract with the government. These contracts could be to house inmates and the government helps regulate private prisons. The public prisons use the private prisons to house many of the overcrowded prisons and the government has the power to place limitations and regulations on the organizations. AB 109 is a bill passed by the U.S. Supreme Court that ordered California to fix the overcrowding. This required California to reduce the prison population to 137.5 percent capacity. When the U.S. Supreme Court ordered California in May to fix its overcrowded prison problem, citing constitutional protections against cruel and unusual punishment, the courtÃ rejected CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s bid for more time and upheld a two-year deadline to drastically cut inmate population in its 33 prisons to 137.5% of capacity by May 2013. To get there, there are several major steps, including a reduction of 10,000 inmates by November 28 to reach 167% of capacity. One idea California has is to use more community base programs for those non-violent prisoners who are released early. Some of the programs include transitional housing, jobs, and medical and mental health services. A poll was taken to see how the community felt about the early release of non-violent, non-sex, and non-serious offenders back into the community, they were in favor of them being released and managed within the community (Krisberg, 2011). The new parolees are supervised by the Post-Release Community Supervision program, about 104,00 are already living within the community. These changes would slowly take place. There are currently 65,000 current prisoners that fall under the AB 109 bill. These number will change as new people go to prisons and others are patrolled. A concern of the counties is funding, with the influx of offenders they worry how the communities will afford the large amount of people (Krisberg, 2011). Prison bonds are a fixed income security called lease revenue bonds (LRBs). These bonds are used to finance prisons. There are different types of bonds, traditional revenue bonds and lease revenue bonds. Traditional revenue bonds help repay the debt, the down side to these bonds is prisons do not generate revenue. The state treasury had to figure out how to create them, their solution was to have a private agency build the prison and then leases it to the state. The state takes money from one entity to pay another, a lot of the time it is taken from the general fund. These bonds are also tax except. The downfall to these bonds is the state can raise taxes to repay these obligations (Anderson, 2014). California has the largest prison population in the United States. Some of the questions asked about reducing the population are will this alter rates of incarceration, probation, supervision, and community programs. The state was giving a grant totaling $650.000 dollars from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the James Irvine Foundation, and the Public Welfare Foundation; this grant funded the Stanford Criminal Justice Center (SCJC) toÃ conduct the research. The SCJC was asked to effectively help California undertake and assess the realignment. This research this grant will provide will not only help California, but other states to reduce their prison population as well (Ã¢â¬Å"Stanford UniversityÃ¢â¬ , 2013). There is another program called Fund for Nonviolence. This program is having several grants under the justice with dignity program. The total grants for 2013 were $372,500 and had 13 different grants that were awarded. Most of them were directed toward inmates who re leased back into the community; these grants were to help them to start over (Ã¢â¬Å"Fund For NonviolenceÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). It is predicted that in the two years over 3,700 more beds will be added to prisons. The state of California faces being held in contempt if they fail to meet their deadline of overcrowding. This brings up more costs for the state to have to fight this matter in court. Three judges orders 34 prisons to be downsized. The state faces two class-action lawsuits because the overcrowding has led to deaths. A report released by the correctionÃ¢â¬â¢s department shows there is a $500 million dollar expansion project that would allow for two more prisons to be built, that means more officers, more health care staff, and more beds, just to 26,000. California passed the three strikes law and there has been a 36% increase in admissions. The three strikes law increased the prison population by 34,000. This is a record high for California (Ã¢â¬Å"Governing The States And LocalitiesÃ¢â¬ , 2014). One answer California has to help offset the budget constrains is legalizing marijuana. The idea would be to use the excise tax, which could yield $770-900 million per year and the sales tax, another $240-360 million a year to reduce the states swelling budget. If the state was to legalize marijuana this would save over $200 million prosecution, arrest, trial, and prison time (Gieringer, 2009). The state of California is faced with a big challenge, how to reduce prison size and keep the re-entry rate low. The three strikes law has not helped with lowering the numbers. The Supreme Court passed AB 109, which told California they had two years to lower the prison population. California is faced with two on ongoing law suits that claim wrongful death suits. The state government has gone over how to reduce the budget and be able to find revenue to make the deficit lower. One thought was to legalize marijuana; this would not only bring a largeÃ revenue but also save on costs from arrest, court, and jail time. Another approach was to build two more prisons to increase the population by 34,000. Also, the state could use more private prisons, they are funded by private entities but are still backed by the state. The prediction is the prison population will steadily increase, there for the need for more beds and more staff is apparent. References Anderson, A. (2014). Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/10/22/prison-correctional-bonds-pf-ii-in_aa_1022fixedincome_inl.html Eaton, K. (2002-2011). BI. Retrieved from http://blog.bi.com/industry-news/ab-109-what-is-it-and-what-does-it-mean-to-california-counties Fund for Nonviolence. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fundfornonviolence.org/index.html Gieringer, D. (2009). California NORML. Retrieved from http://www.canorml.org/background/ca_legalization2.html GOVERNING The States and Localities. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/news/headlines/california-prisonÃ¢â¬âovercrowding-its-going-to-get-worse.html Henrichson, C. (2012). VERA Institution of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/Price_of_Prisons_updated_version_072512.pdf Krisberg, B. (2011). Berkeley Law University of California. Retrieved from http://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/REALIGNMENT_FINAL9.28.11.pdf Miller, D. (2012). Pro Quest A discovery guide. Retrieved from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/prisons/review.pdf
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Part 1 The group decision making process Description Humans are small group beings. We always have been and we always will be. The ubiquitousness of groups and the inevitability of being in them makes groups one of the most important factors in our lives. As the effectiveness of our groups goes, so goes the quality of our lives. (Johnson and Johnson 2003: 579). Since I have studied in Exeter University, I have been taught to study in a group, which is totally different from my undergraduate course. In Human resource management class, we have been divided in three groups, there are seven people in my group.who are from China, Malaysia and Japan. Following Gibbs model of reflection(1988), this essays will illustrate five steps, whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I will link this theory to our group decision making. In order to complete human resource management course work which was a role play about company interview, firstly we defined the requirement of the role play. Then we collected relevant information and gathered our ideas. Thi rdly, we listed alternative options, one was only interviewer and candidate, the other was includingShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource And Human Resources2538 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages Human resources departments, has fueled the need for exceptional talent, Human resources is a departments, in some companies it has become a global workforce. Human resource offered Challenges, however, on the positive side, people can be hired for all kind of opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ human resources can consist of a group of people or one person. Human resources is over hiring, firing, training, and managing, also supplying a good benefit package, many companies has a human resource department whichRead MoreHuman Resources : Human Resource Professionals1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman resource professionals use several different methods to make sure that they have the best employees they can possibly have, as well as attain new ones. 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